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Insurance Claim Arbitration

Using the Optimistic Oracle to allow for verification of insurance claims
This section covers the insurance claims arbitration contract, which is available in the developer's quick-start repo. This tutorial shows an example of how insurance claims can be resolved and settled through the Optimistic Oracle V2 contract.
You will find out how to test and deploy this smart contract and how it integrates with the Optimistic Oracle. You can find more details on how UMA's Oracle works here.

Insurance Arbitrator Contract

This smart contract allows insurers to issue insurance policies by depositing the insured amount, designating the insured beneficiary, and describing the insured event.
Anyone can submit a claim that the insured event has occurred at any time. Insurance Arbitrators resolve the claim through the Optimistic Oracle by passing a question with a description of the insured event in ancillary data using the YES_OR_NO_QUERY price identifier specified in UMIP-107.
If the claim is confirmed and settled through the Optimistic Oracle, this contract automatically pays out insurance coverage to the beneficiary. If the claim is rejected, the policy continues to be active and ready for subsequent claim attempts.

Development environment and tests

Clone repository and Install dependencies

Clone the UMA dev-quickstart repository and install the dependencies. To install dependencies, you will need to install the long-term support version of nodejs, currently Nodejs v16, and yarn. You can then install dependencies by running yarn with no arguments:
git clone [email protected]:UMAprotocol/dev-quickstart.git
cd dev-quickstart
yarn

Compiling your contracts

We will need to run the following command to compile the contracts and make the Typescript interfaces so that they are easy to work with:
yarn hardhat compile

Contract implementation

The contract discussed in this tutorial can be found at dev-quickstart/contracts/InsuranceArbitrator.sol (here) within the repo.

Contract creation and initialization

_finder parameter in the constructor points the Insurance Arbitrator to the Finder contract that stores the addresses of the rest of the UMA contracts. The Finder address can be fetched from the relevant networks file, if you are on a live network, or you can provide your own Finder instance if deploying UMA protocol in your own sandboxed testing environment.
_currency parameter in the constructor identifies the token used for settlement of insurance claims, as well as the bond currency for proposals and disputes. This token should be approved as whitelisted UMA collateral. Please check Approved Collateral Types for production networks or call getWhitelist() on the Address Whitelist contract for any of the test networks.
Alternatively, you can approve a new token address with addToWhitelist method in the Address Whitelist contract if working in a sandboxed UMA environment.
_timer is used only when running unit tests locally to simulate the advancement of time. For all the public networks (including testnets) the zero address should be used.
constructor(
FinderInterface _finder,
address _currency,
address _timer
) Testable(_timerAddress) {
finder =_finderAddress;
currency = IERC20(_currency);
oo = OptimisticOracleV2Interface(finder.getImplementationAddress(OracleInterfaces.OptimisticOracleV2));
}
As part of initialization, the oo variable is set to the address of the OptimisticOracleV2 implementation as discovered through getImplementationAddress method in the Finder contract.

Issuing insurance

issueInsurance method allows any insurer to deposit insuredAmount of currency tokens by designating an insurance beneficiary (insuredAddress) and defining the insured event (insuredEvent). Before calling this method, the insurer should have approved this contract to spend the required amount of currency tokens.
function issueInsurance(
string calldata insuredEvent,
address insuredAddress,
uint256 insuredAmount
) external returns (bytes32 policyId) ...
Internally, the issued policy is stored in the insurancePolicies mapping using the calculated policyId key that is generated by hashing the current block number with the provided insurance parameters in the internal _getPolicyId function.
After pulling insuredAmount from the caller in the issueInsurance method, the contract emits a PolicyIssued event including the policyId parameter that should be used when claiming insurance.

Submitting insurance claim

Anyone can submit an insurance claim on the issued policy by calling the submitClaim method with the relevant policyId parameter. This method will initiate both a data request and proposal with the Optimistic Oracle. A proposal bond is required, hence the caller should have approved this contract to spend the required amount of currency tokens for the proposal bond.
function submitClaim(bytes32 policyId) ...
After checking that the policyId represents a valid unclaimed insurance policy, the contract gets the current timestamp and composes ancillaryData that will be required for making requests and proposals to the Optimistic Oracle:
uint256 timestamp = getCurrentTime(); // note that `getCurrentTime` is exported from testable to enable easy time manipulation.
bytes memory ancillaryData = abi.encodePacked(ancillaryDataHead, claimedPolicy.insuredEvent, ancillaryDataTail);
bytes32 claimId = _getClaimId(timestamp, ancillaryData);
insuranceClaims[claimId] = policyId;
The resulting timestamp and ancillaryData parameters are hashed in the internal _getClaimId method that is used as a key when storing the linked policyId in the insuranceClaims mapping. This information will be required when receiving a callback from the Optimistic Oracle.
The concatenated ancillaryData will have a valid question as specified in UMIP-107 for YES_OR_NO_QUERY price identifier.
An Optimistic Oracle data request is initiated without providing any proposer reward since the proposal will be done within the submitClaim method:
oo.requestPrice(priceIdentifier, timestamp, ancillaryData, currency, 0);
Before the proposal is made, the Optimistic Oracle allows the requesting contract (this Insurance Arbitrator) to set additional parameters like bonding, liveness, and callback settings. This requires passing the same priceIdentifier, timestamp, and ancillaryData parameters to identify the request.
Total bond to be pulled from the claim initiator consists of the Optimistic Oracle proposer bond and final fee for the relevant currency token. This contract sets the proposer bond as a fixed percentage (constant oracleBondPercentage) from insuredAmount. When calling the setBond method, the Optimistic Oracle calculates and returns the total bond that would be pulled when making the proposal:
uint256 proposerBond = (claimedPolicy.insuredAmount * oracleBondPercentage) / 1e18;
uint256 totalBond = oo.setBond(priceIdentifier, timestamp, ancillaryData, proposerBond);
Optimistic Oracle liveness is set by calling the setCustomLiveness method. This contract uses 24 hours so that verifiers have sufficient time to check the claim, but one can adjust the optimisticOracleLivenessTime constant for testing. (You probably don't want to wait a full day to resolve your test requests!)
oo.setCustomLiveness(priceIdentifier, timestamp, ancillaryData, optimisticOracleLivenessTime);
In contrast to earlier versions, the Optimistic Oracle V2 by default does not use callbacks and requesting contracts have to explicitly subscribe to them if intending to perform any logic when a data request has changed state. Here, in calling setCallbacks, this contract only subscribes to a callback for settlement, as implemented in the priceSettled method. (Note: Subscribing to any other callbacks that are not implemented in the requesting contract would make data requests unresolvable.)
oo.setCallbacks(priceIdentifier, timestamp, ancillaryData, false, false, true);
After totalBond amount of currency token is pulled from the claim initiator and approved to be taken by Optimistic Oracle, this contract proposes 1e18 representing an answer of YES to the raised question. Requesting and proposing affirmative answers atomically allows us to reduce the number of steps taken by end users and it is most likely expected that the insured beneficiary would be initiating the claim.
oo.proposePriceFor(msg.sender, address(this), priceIdentifier, timestamp, ancillaryData, int256(1e18));

Disputing insurance claim

For the sake of simplicity this contract does not implement a dispute method, but the disputer can dispute the submitted claim directly through Optimistic Oracle before the liveness passes by calling its disputePrice method:
function disputePrice(
address requester,
bytes32 identifier,
uint256 timestamp,
bytes memory ancillaryData
) ...
The disputer should pass the address of this Insurance Arbitrator contract as requester and all the other parameters from the original request when the claim was initiated as emitted by the Optimistic Oracle in its RequestPrice event.
If the claim is disputed, the request is escalated to the UMA DVM and it can be settled only after UMA voters have resolved it. To learn more about the DVM, see the docs section on the DVM: how does UMA's DVM work.

Settling insurance claim

Similar to disputes, claim settlement should be initiated through the Optimistic Oracle contract by calling its settle method with the same parameters:
function settle(
address requester,
bytes32 identifier,
uint256 timestamp,
bytes memory ancillaryData
) ...
In case the liveness has expired or a dispute has been resolved by the UMA DVM, this call would initiate a priceSettled callback in the Insurance Arbitrator contract:
function priceSettled(
bytes32, // identifier passed by Optimistic Oracle, but not used here as it is always the same.
uint256 timestamp,
bytes memory ancillaryData,
int256 price
) ...
Based on the received callback parameters, this contract can identify the relevant claimId that is used to get the stored insurance policy:
bytes32 claimId = _getClaimId(timestamp, ancillaryData);
Importantly, all callbacks should be restricted to accept calls only from the Optimistic Oracle to avoid someone spoofing a resolved answer:
require(address(oo) == msg.sender, "Unauthorized callback");
Depending on the resolved answer, this contract would either pay out the insured beneficiary and delete the insurance (in case of 1e18 representing the answer YES, the insurance claim was valid) or reject the payout and re-open the policy for any subsequent claims:
// Deletes insurance policy and transfers claim amount if the claim was confirmed.
if (price == 1e18) {
delete insurancePolicies[policyId];
currency.safeTransfer(claimedPolicy.insuredAddress, claimedPolicy.insuredAmount);
emit ClaimAccepted(claimId, policyId);
// Otherwise just reset the flag so that repeated claims can be made.
} else {
insurancePolicies[policyId].claimInitiated = false;
emit ClaimRejected(claimId, policyId);
}

Tests and deployment

All the unit tests covering the functionality described above are available here. To execute all of them, run:
yarn test test/InsuranceArbitrator/*
Before deploying the contract check the comments on available environment variables in the deployment script.
In the case of the Görli testnet, the defaults would use the Finder instance that references the Mock Oracle implementation for resolving DVM requests. This exposes a pushPrice method to be used for simulating a resolved answer in case of disputed proposals. Also, the default Görli deployment would use the already whitelisted TestnetERC20 currency that can be minted by anyone using its allocateTo method.
To deploy the Insurance Arbitrator contract on Görli, run:
NODE_URL_5=YOUR_GOERLI_NODE MNEMONIC=YOUR_MNEMONIC yarn hardhat deploy --network goerli --tags InsuranceArbitrator
Optionally you can verify the deployed contract on Etherscan:
ETHERSCAN_API_KEY=YOUR_API_KEY yarn hardhat etherscan-verify --network goerli --license AGPL-3.0 --force-license --solc-input

Interacting with deployed contract

The following section provide instructions on how to interact with the deployed contract from the Hardhat console, though one can also use it for guidance for interacting through another interface (e.g. Remix or Etherscan).
Start Hardhat console with:
NODE_URL_5=YOUR_GOERLI_NODE MNEMONIC=YOUR_MNEMONIC yarn hardhat console --network goerli

Initial setup

From the Hardhat console, start by adding the required getAbi dependency for interacting with UMA contracts and use the first two accounts as insurer and insured beneficiary:
const { getAbi } = require("@uma/contracts-node");
const [insurer, insured] = await ethers.getSigners();
Grab the deployed Insurance Arbitrator contract:
const insuranceArbitratorDeployment = await deployments.get("InsuranceArbitrator");
const insuranceArbitrator = new ethers.Contract(
insuranceArbitratorDeployment.address,
insuranceArbitratorDeployment.abi,
ethers.provider
);

Issue insurance

Assuming TestnetERC20 was used as currency when deploying, mint the required insurance amount (e.g. 10,000 TEST tokens) and approve the Insurance Arbitrator to pull them:
const insuredAmount = ethers.utils.parseEther("10000");
const currency = new ethers.Contract(await insuranceArbitrator.currency(), getAbi("TestnetERC20"), ethers.provider);
await (await currency.connect(insurer).allocateTo(insurer.address, insuredAmount)).wait();
await (await currency.connect(insurer).approve(insuranceArbitrator.address, insuredAmount)).wait();
Issue the insurance policy and grab the resulting policyId from the emitted PolicyIssued event:
const issueReceipt = await (await insuranceArbitrator.connect(insurer).issueInsurance(
"Bad things have happened",
insured.address,
insuredAmount
)).wait();
const policyId = (await insuranceArbitrator.queryFilter(
"PolicyIssued",
issueReceipt.blockNumber,
issueReceipt.blockNumber
))[0].args.policyId;

Submit insurance claim

First calculate the expected proposer bond:
const proposerBond = insuredAmount.mul(await insuranceArbitrator.oracleBondPercentage()).div(ethers.utils.parseEther("1"));
Fetch the expected final fee from the Store contract (which is discovered through the Finder):
const finder = new ethers.Contract(await insuranceArbitrator.finder(), getAbi("Finder"), ethers.provider);
const store = new ethers.Contract(await finder.getImplementationAddress(
ethers.utils.formatBytes32String("Store")),
getAbi("Store"),
ethers.provider);
const finalFee = (await store.computeFinalFee(currency.address)).rawValue;
Calculate the expected total bond and provide funding/approval for the insured claimant:
const totalBond = proposerBond.add(finalFee);
await (await currency.connect(insured).allocateTo(insured.address, totalBond)).wait();
await (await currency.connect(insured).approve(insuranceArbitrator.address, totalBond)).wait();
Now initiate the insurance claim and grab request details from the RequestPrice event emitted by the Optimistic Oracle:
const oo = new ethers.Contract(await insuranceArbitrator.oo(), getAbi("OptimisticOracleV2"), ethers.provider);
const claimReceipt = await (await insuranceArbitrator.connect(insured).submitClaim(policyId)).wait();
const request = (await oo.queryFilter("RequestPrice", claimReceipt.blockNumber, claimReceipt.blockNumber))[0].args;

Dispute insurance claim

Before liveness passes, the insurer can dispute the claim through the Optimistic Oracle. First, they must fund and approve with the same bonding amount:
await (await currency.connect(insurer).allocateTo(insurer.address, totalBond)).wait();
await (await currency.connect(insurer).approve(oo.address, totalBond)).wait();
If you are on a testnet like Göerli, in order to simulate UMA voting on a testnet, you can use the Mock Oracle:
const mockOracle = new ethers.Contract(await finder.getImplementationAddress(
ethers.utils.formatBytes32String("Oracle")),
getAbi("MockOracleAncillary"),
ethers.provider);
Now initiate the dispute and grab the vote request details from the PriceRequestAdded event emitted by the Mock Oracle:
const disputeReceipt = await (await oo.connect(insurer).disputePrice(
request.requester,
request.identifier,
request.timestamp,
request.ancillaryData
)).wait();
const voteRequest = (await mockOracle.queryFilter(
"PriceRequestAdded",
disputeReceipt.blockNumber,
disputeReceipt.blockNumber
))[0].args;

Settle insurance claim

Before settling the claim, we can take a look at the vote request as seen by UMA voters:
console.log("identifier:", ethers.utils.parseBytes32String(voteRequest.identifier));
console.log("time:", Number(voteRequest.time));
console.log("ancillaryData:", ethers.utils.toUtf8String(voteRequest.ancillaryData));
The ancillaryData should start with q:"Had the following insured event occurred as of request timestamp: Bad things have happened?". It is then followed by the ooRequester key with our Insurance Arbitrator address in its value.
In order to simulate YES as the resolved answer we would pass 1e18 as the price parameter in the Mock Oracle pushPrice method:
await (await mockOracle.connect(insured).pushPrice(
voteRequest.identifier,
voteRequest.time,
voteRequest.ancillaryData,
ethers.utils.parseEther("1")
)).wait();
Now we can settle the request through the Optimistic Oracle and observe the emitted ClaimAccepted from our Insurance Arbitrator contract:
const settleReceipt = await (await oo.connect(insured).settle(
request.requester,
request.identifier,
request.timestamp,
request.ancillaryData
)).wait();
const claimSettlementEvent = (await insuranceArbitrator.queryFilter(
"ClaimAccepted",
settleReceipt.blockNumber,
settleReceipt.blockNumber
))[0];
console.log(claimSettlementEvent);
The above settlement transaction should also transfer insuredAmount tokens to the insured beneficiary as well as return the proposer bond to the claim initiator.
Alternatively, if 0 value was resolved, the settlement transaction should emit the ClaimRejected event without paying out the insuredAmount and returning the bond to the disputer, along with half of the proposer's bond.