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Internal Optimistic Oracle

Using the Optimistic Oracle to verify arbitrary data type results proposed through an external contract

The Internal Optimistic Oracle

The Internal Optimistic Oracle (IOO) implements the Optimistic Oracle's (OO) internal escalation game logic for price requests and price proposals within another contract. The disputes are escalated through the canonical Optimistic Oracle to UMA's Data Verification Mechanism.
The IOO contract is meant to be utilized as a type of OO that permits customized escalation game logic and custom data structures. This pattern provides the most gas efficient route to building an OO integration by removing the need to perform cross-contract calls in all cases except for when a dispute is raised via the internal escalation game.
The IOO is intended to be the simplest implementation possible, allowing it to serve as a starting point for any project that can benefit from these functionalities.
The following table shows how the Internal Optimistic Oracle differs from the Optimistic Oracle and why using the Internal Optimistic Oracle could be useful:
Optimistic Oracle (OO)
Internal Optimistic Oracle (IOO)
Using the OO from an external contract incurs gas costs that, while not excessive, might be reduced with customized implementations like the IOO.
Lower gas costs because price requests are processed locally.
The requested data types from the OO are always int256.
Customized data structures: the data requested from the oracle can be of any type (uint256 in this IOO implementation).
The OO design is agnostic and adaptable to every use case, but adding more advanced functionality to price requests, such as defining who can propose values, requires some extra work.
Additional customization is allowed: in the example implementation, a price request is coupled with the msg.sender, requiring the requester and proposer to be same.
Disputes are resolved in the DVM through a vote of UMA token holders.
Disputes are resolved in the DVM through a vote of UMA token holders.
In this simple implementation, we highlight these functionalities, however, if you wish to go further, consider the following:
  • The data type of the "price" (proposedPrice) could be any: structs, arrays, bytes. In the example, we chose uint256, but you can modify it to suit your requirements. (Note: For historical reasons, the data is referred to as a "price" throughout UMA's code, but can be any type of data, not just data related to asset prices.)
  • Any further logic could be added to the requests and proposals, such as permitting only addresses on a whitelist to submit answers (proposePrice function).

Development environment and tests

Clone repository and Install dependencies

Clone the UMA dev-quickstart repository and install the dependencies. To install dependencies, you will need to install the long-term support version of Nodejs, currently Nodejs v16, and yarn. You can then install dependencies by running yarn with no arguments:
git clone [email protected]:UMAprotocol/dev-quickstart.git
cd dev-quickstart
yarn

Compiling your contracts

We will need to run the following command to compile the contracts and make the Typescript interfaces so that they are easy to work with:
yarn hardhat compile

Contract Implementation

The contract discussed in this tutorial can be found at dev-quickstart/contracts/InternalOptimisticOracle.sol (here) within the repo.

Contract creation and initialization

The constructor of the Internal Optimistic Oracle contract takes three parameters:
_finderAddress finder contract used to get addresses of other UMA contracts.
_currency the collateral token used to pay fees.
_timerAddress is used only when running unit tests locally to simulate advancement of time. For all the public networks (including testnets) zero address should be used.
constructor(
address _finderAddress,
address _currency,
address _timerAddress
) Testable(_timerAddress) {
finder = FinderInterface(_finderAddress);
currency = IERC20(_currency);
oo = OptimisticOracleV2Interface(finder.getImplementationAddress(OracleInterfaces.OptimisticOracleV2));
}
As part of initialization, the oo variable is set to the address of the OptimisticOracleV2 implementation as discovered through the getImplementationAddress method in the Finder contract. This address will vary depending on which chain this contract is deployed to.

Requesting a price

The following function allows you to request a price internally in the IOO. For simplicity the price identifier has been hardcoded to YES_OR_NO_QUERY. This imposes a set of rules on how the assertion is formulated and formatted, which are specified in UMIP-107. The requestPrice function takes the following arguments:
  • timestamp timestamp used to identify the request, usually the current timestamp.
  • ancillaryData the byte-converted question that we want to ask (e.g. 'q: "What uint256 are we looking for?"')
  • reward the amount of the currency defined in the constructor to pay to the proposer on settlement
  • bond the bond in the currency defined in the constructor that we want to require on top of the finalFee (~1500 USD worth of the currency). The finalFee can be viewed as the minimum bond required by the system to process a dispute, and the bond is any additional amount we to require on top.
  • liveness time period during which the proposal can be disputed
Note: The requestPrice function requires the caller to approve the IOO to spend the reward amount of the currency.
function requestPrice(
uint256 timestamp,
bytes memory ancillaryData,
uint256 reward,
uint256 bond,
uint64 liveness
) public {
bytes32 requestId = _getId(msg.sender, timestamp, ancillaryData);
require(address(requests[requestId].currency) == address(0), "Request already initialized");
require(_getIdentifierWhitelist().isIdentifierSupported(priceIdentifier), "Unsupported identifier");
require(_getCollateralWhitelist().isOnWhitelist(address(currency)), "Unsupported currency");
require(timestamp <= getCurrentTime(), "Timestamp in future");
requests[requestId] = Request({
proposer: address(0),
disputer: address(0),
currency: currency,
settled: false,
proposedPrice: 0,
reward: reward,
finalFee: _getFinalFee(),
bond: bond,
liveness: liveness,
expirationTime: 0
});
if (reward > 0) currency.safeTransferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), reward);
}

Proposing a price

Once a price has been requested, it can be proposed.
These are the arguments that proposePrice receives:
  • timestamp timestamp used to identify the priceRequest, usually the current timestamp.
  • ancillaryData the byte-converted question that we want to ask.
  • proposedPrice the price proposed to the request
Note: The proposePrice function requires the caller to approve the IOO to spend the bond + finalFee amount of the currency.
Note: Because of the _getId function definition, the requester and the proposer must be the same person.
function proposePrice(
uint256 timestamp,
bytes memory ancillaryData,
uint256 proposedPrice
) public {
Request storage request = requests[_getId(msg.sender, timestamp, ancillaryData)];
require(address(request.currency) != address(0), "Price not requested");
require(request.proposer == address(0), "Price already proposed");
request.proposer = msg.sender;
request.proposedPrice = proposedPrice;
request.expirationTime = uint64(getCurrentTime()) + request.liveness;
request.currency.safeTransferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), request.bond + request.finalFee);
}

Disputing a price

Once a price has been proposed it can be disputed by calling disputePrice, this function takes the following parameters:
  • timestamp timestamp used to identify the price request, usually the current timestamp.
  • ancillaryData the byte-converted question that has been asked initially and already answered by the proposer
Note: The disputePrice function requires the caller to approve the IOO to spend the bond + finalFee amount of the currency.
Note: Because of the _getId function definition, the requester, proposer and disputer must be the same person.
function disputePrice(uint256 timestamp, bytes memory ancillaryData) public {
bytes32 requestId = _getId(msg.sender, timestamp, ancillaryData);
Request storage request = requests[requestId];
require(request.proposer != address(0), "No proposed price to dispute");
require(request.disputer == address(0), "Proposal already disputed");
require(uint64(getCurrentTime()) < request.expirationTime, "Proposal past liveness");
request.disputer = msg.sender;
// If the final fee gets updated between the time the request is made and the time the dispute is made, the
// disputer will have to pay the final fee increase x2. This is a very rare edge case that we are willing to accept.
uint256 finalFeeRise = _getFinalFeeRise(request);
uint256 initialBalance = request.currency.balanceOf(address(this));
request.currency.safeTransferFrom(
msg.sender,
address(this),
request.bond + request.finalFee + 2 * finalFeeRise
);
request.currency.approve(address(oo), 2 * (request.bond + request.finalFee + finalFeeRise) + request.reward);
bytes memory disputeAncillaryData = _getDisputeAncillaryData(requestId);
oo.requestPrice(priceIdentifier, timestamp, disputeAncillaryData, request.currency, request.reward);
oo.setBond(priceIdentifier, timestamp, disputeAncillaryData, request.bond);
oo.proposePriceFor(request.proposer, address(this), priceIdentifier, timestamp, disputeAncillaryData, 1e18);
oo.disputePriceFor(msg.sender, address(this), priceIdentifier, timestamp, disputeAncillaryData);
// If the final fee has decreased, refund the excess to the disputer & proposer.
uint256 balanceToRefund = request.currency.balanceOf(address(this)) > initialBalance
? request.currency.balanceOf(address(this)) - initialBalance
: 0;
if (balanceToRefund > 0) request.currency.safeTransfer(msg.sender, balanceToRefund);
}

Tests and deployment

All the unit tests covering the functionality described above are available here. To execute all of them, run:
yarn test test/InternalOptimisticOracle/*
Before deploying the contract check the comments on available environment variables in the deployment script.
In the case of the Görli testnet, the defaults would use the Finder instance that references the Mock Oracle implementation for resolving DVM requests. This exposes a pushPrice method to be used for simulating a resolved answer in case of disputed proposals. Also, the default Görli deployment would use the already whitelisted TestnetERC20 currency that can be minted by anyone using its allocateTo method.
To deploy the Internal Optimistic Oracle contract on Görli, run:
NODE_URL_5=YOUR_GOERLI_NODE MNEMONIC=YOUR_MNEMONIC yarn hardhat deploy --network goerli --tags InternalOptimisticOracle
Optionally, you can verify the deployed contract on Etherscan:
ETHERSCAN_API_KEY=YOUR_API_KEY yarn hardhat etherscan-verify --network goerli --license AGPL-3.0 --force-license --solc-input

Interacting with deployed contract

The following section provide instructions on how to interact with the deployed contract from the Hardhat console, though one can also use it for guidance for interacting through another interface (e.g. Remix or Etherscan).
Start Hardhat console with:
NODE_URL_5=YOUR_GOERLI_NODE MNEMONIC=YOUR_MNEMONIC yarn hardhat console --network goerli
Initial setup
Get the libraries and connect to the necessary contracts that we are going to use. In this tutorial we are using TestnetERC20 as the currency as described in the deployment script.
const { getAbi, getAddress } = require("@uma/contracts-node");
const { ethers } = require("hardhat");
const signer = (await ethers.getSigners())[0];
const iooDeployment = await deployments.get("InternalOptimisticOracle");
const ioo = new ethers.Contract(
iooDeployment.address,
iooDeployment.abi,
ethers.provider
);
const finder = new hre.ethers.Contract(
"0xDC6b80D38004F495861E081e249213836a2F3217", // Finder address used in the deployment
getAbi("Finder"),
ethers.provider
);
const store = new hre.ethers.Contract(
await finder.getImplementationAddress(
ethers.utils.formatBytes32String("Store")
),
getAbi("Store"),
ethers.provider
);
const currency = new hre.ethers.Contract(
await ioo.currency(),
getAbi("TestnetERC20"),
ethers.provider
);
const mockOracle = new hre.ethers.Contract(
await finder.getImplementationAddress(
ethers.utils.formatBytes32String("Oracle")
),
getAbi("MockOracleAncillary"),
ethers.provider
);
Request a price and propose a price without disputes
First we need to mint the reward amount and approve the IOO to pull them. This amount of currency tokens will be used to pay the proposer of the price request we are going to create.
const reward = ethers.utils.parseUnits("100", 18);
await (await currency.connect(signer).allocateTo(signer.address, reward)).wait();
await (await currency.connect(signer).approve(ioo.address, reward)).wait();
Request the price:
let requestTimestamp = await(
await ethers.provider.getBlock("latest")
).timestamp;
const bond = ethers.utils.parseUnits("500", 18);
const liveness = 10; // 10 seconds for testing purposes
const ancillaryData = ethers.utils.toUtf8Bytes(
`q: "What uint256 are we looking for?"`
);
await(
await ioo.connect(signer).requestPrice(
requestTimestamp,
ancillaryData,
reward,
bond,
liveness
)
).wait();
Then we can propose a price to answer the question. The proposer needs to post a bond equal to the request.bond + finalFee in order to do this so let's mint and approve the tokens as before:
const finalFee = await store.computeFinalFee(currency.address);
const totalAmount = bond.add(finalFee.rawValue);
await (await currency.connect(signer).allocateTo(signer.address, totalAmount)).wait();
await (await currency.connect(signer).approve(ioo.address, totalAmount)).wait();
And propose the price:
const correctAnswer = ethers.utils.parseEther("1");
await(
await ioo
.connect(signer)
.proposePrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData, correctAnswer)
).wait();
Now we need to wait 10 seconds for the liveness period to be over and settle and get the price to verify the correct answer:
await(
await ioo.connect(signer).settleAndGetPrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData)
).wait();
console.log(
"Price is the correct answer: ",
(await ioo.getPrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData)).eq(correctAnswer)
);
Request a price and propose a price with a dispute
After requesting and proposing a price we can dispute the price to escalate it to the DVM to be resolved by UMA voters. In this example we will be proposing a correct answer and disputing it, asking the DVM to determine the answer. The first steps are the same as before where we request a price and propose an answer:
// get a new request timestamp
requestTimestamp = await(await ethers.provider.getBlock("latest")).timestamp;
// mint and approve the reward
await(await currency.connect(signer).allocateTo(signer.address, reward)).wait();
await(await currency.connect(signer).approve(ioo.address, reward)).wait();
// request a new price
const longerLiveness = 3600;
await(
await ioo
.connect(signer)
.requestPrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData, reward, bond, longerLiveness)
).wait();
// mint and approve the bond
await(
await currency.connect(signer).allocateTo(signer.address, totalAmount)
).wait();
await(await currency.connect(signer).approve(ioo.address, totalAmount)).wait();
// propose a price
await(
await ioo
.connect(signer)
.proposePrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData, correctAnswer)
).wait();
Then we can dispute the price:
// mint and approve the bond for the disputer
await(
await currency.connect(signer).allocateTo(signer.address, totalAmount)
).wait();
await(await currency.connect(signer).approve(ioo.address, totalAmount)).wait();
// dispute the price
const receipt = await(
await ioo.connect(signer).disputePrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData)
).wait();
As we are in a test environment, we can simulate the vote that would normally occur by pushing a price to the mockOracle:
const disputedPriceRequest = (
await mockOracle.queryFilter(mockOracle.filters.PriceRequestAdded(), receipt.blockNumber, receipt.blockNumber)
)[0];
await mockOracle.connect(signer).pushPrice(
disputedPriceRequest.args.identifier,
disputedPriceRequest.args.time,
disputedPriceRequest.args.ancillaryData,
correctAnswer // The original price is accepted
);
At this point, we can call settleAndGetPrice to settle the accepted price request and then confirm that the result matches the proposed price:
await(
await ioo.connect(signer).settleAndGetPrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData)
).wait();
console.log(
"Price is the correct answer: ",
(await ioo.getPrice(requestTimestamp, ancillaryData)).eq(correctAnswer)
);